Other initiatives include community policing efforts to capture known criminals. [7], Malicious code also includes spyware, which are deceptive programs, installed without authorization, “that monitor a consumer’s activities without their consent.”[8] Spyware can be used to send users unwanted popup ads, to usurp the control of a user’s Internet browser, or to monitor a user’s online habits. CATEGORIES OF CYBER CRIME We can categorize cyber crime in two ways. The consent for spyware is normally found in the end-user license agreement. [8], The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) requires that financial institutions and credit agencies increase the security of systems that contain their customers’ personal information. Kennesaw, GA: ACM. 10 Ways to Prevent Cyber Attacks High-profile cyber attacks on companies such as Target and Sears have raised awareness of the growing threat of cyber crime. [12] Computer intrusion fraud is a huge business with hackers being able to find passwords, read and alter files and read email, but such crime could almost be eliminated if hackers could be prevented from accessing a computer system or identified quickly enough. p. 154. Several factors must come together for a crime to occur: Primary prevention addresses individual and family-level factors correlated with later criminal participation. California has a registry for victims with a confirmed identity theft. By gaining an understanding of these circumstances, mechanisms are then introduced to change the relevant environments with the aim of reducing the opportunities for particular crimes. Cyber crime refers to illegal activities that take place online, including fraud, spam, identity theft, computer viruses and worms, cyber stalking, drug trafficking, sexual predators, malware or spyware, phishing schemes and the like. Cybercriminals often commit crimes by targeting computer networks or devices. Avoid walking by yourself at night, particularly though … [15], Additionally, network vulnerability testing performed by technicians or automated programs can be used to test on a full-scale or targeted specifically to devices, systems, and passwords used on a network to assess their degree of secureness. Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals. It has been amended a number of times, most recently by the US Patriot Act of 2002 and the Identity theft enforcement and Restitution Act of 2008. [4] Scripts were originally developed in the field of cognitive science and focus on the behavioural processes involved in rational goal-oriented behaviour. [11] This method of deception is commonly used by individuals attempting to break into computer systems, by posing as an authoritative or trusted party and capturing access information from the naive target. Situational crime prevention (SCP) in general attempts to move away from the "dispositional" theories of crime commission i.e. Cyber Stalking: This is a kind of online harassment wherein the victim is subjected to a barrage of online messages and emails. [12] Email Phishing is a common example of social engineering's application, but it is not limited to this single type of attack. Clarke proposed a table of twenty-five techniques of situational crime prevention, but the five general headings are: These techniques can be specifically adapted to cybercrime as follows: Reinforcing targets and restricting access- the use of firewalls, encryption, card/password access to ID databases and banning hacker websites and magazines. Prevention of cyber-crime highlight that government leadership plays an important part in crime prevention, combined with cooperation and partnerships across ministries and between authorities, community organizations, non-governmental organizations, the business sector and private citizens. The FBI Cybercrime Division leads the country’s law enforcement effort to investigate, prevent, and prosecute high-tech crimes, including all manner of cybercrime. The particular opportunities and dynamics of a situation are said to present cues, stressors, temptations and perceived provocations, which trigger motivation. While it may not be possible to completely eradicate cybercrime, businesses can reduce their exposure to it by maintaining an effective cybersecurity strategy using a defense in depth approach to securing systems, networks and data. 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